A significant number of ethnic groups inhabit Mongolia since prehistoric times. Most of these people were nomads who, from time to time, formed confederations that rose to prominence. The Hunnu Empire is the confederation ruled by Modun Shanyu in 209 BC.In 1206, Genghis Khan founded the Mongol Empire which became the largest land empire in world history.
In 1271, Kubilai Khan, Mongolian emperor of China and grandson of Genghis Khan, who establish the Yuan dynasty and built a great capital on the site of modern Beijing where he received Marco Polo (1216-1294). During the 14th century, the great Mongol states disintegrated. The Yuan Dynasty was overthrown by the Chinese Ming Dynasty in 1368. Centuries of internal conflict, expansion and contraction brought Mongolia fall into Manchu Qing dynasty in 1691.
Mongolia declared its independence the Qing Dynasty in 1911. On December 29, 1911, Bogd Javzandamba, the leader of the Mongolian Buddhism, was declared Khan and formed the first Government of Mongolia with five ministries. In 1921, People’s Revolution won in Mongolia with the help of the Russian Red Army and thus Mongolia became the second socialist country in the world. The Mongolian People's Republic (MPR) was proclaimed on 26 November 1924 and the first Constitution was adopted.
Mongolia became a UN member state in 1961. Early 1990’s, in Mongolia started democratic transformation which led to a multi-party system, a new Constitution of 1992, and a transition to a market economy. The democratic process is still continuing and the Mongolian political, social, educational, cultural, scientific and economic sectors are progressing rapidly.
We are very delighted to introduce Elements of The Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity (UNECSO) in Mongolia. (source: www.unesco.org)