Mongolians tend to be shy people. Generally Mongolian people do not like say about bad and negative things. Thus, good wishes and expressions of praise are widespread. They always live in any conditions symbolizing good.
Due to the level of economic, infrastructural and social development of urban and rural areas, there is a vast cultural difference between them. People's behavior, speech and behavior of these differences look bright.
Mostly people in remote areas kept traditional culture.
Foreign visitors have noticed the hospitality of the Mongols. It is inseparably linked to traditional Mongolian nomadic culture.
Since 1990, key health indicators like life expectancy and infant and child mortality have steadily improved, both due to social changes and to improvement in the health sector. However, serious problems remain, especially in the countryside.
Average childbirth (fertility rate) is around 2.25 - 1.87 per woman (2007) and average life expectancy is 67-68 years. Infant mortality is at 1.9%-4% and child mortality is at 4.3%.
The health sector comprises 17 specialized hospitals and centers, 4 regional diagnostic and treatment centers, 9 district and 21 aimag general hospitals, 323 soum hospitals, 18 feldsher posts, 233 family group practices, and 536 private hospitals and 57 drug supply companies/pharmacies. In 2002 the total number of health workers was 33273, of which 6823 were doctors, 788 pharmacists, 7802-nurses and 14091 mid-level personnel. At present, there are 27.7 physicians and 75.7 hospital beds per 10,000 inhabitants.
During the state socialist period, education was one of the areas of significant achievement in Mongolia. Illiteracy was virtually eliminated, in part through the use of seasonal boarding schools for children of nomadic families. Funding to these boarding schools was cut in the 1990s, contributing to slightly increased illiteracy.
Primary and secondary education formerly lasted ten years, but was expanded to eleven years. Since the 2008-2009 school year, new first graders are using the twelve year system. As such, full transition to the twelve year system will not happen until the 2019-2020 school year, when the current first graders graduate.
Mongolian national universities are all spin-offs from the National University of Mongolia and the Mongolian University of Science and Technology.
The broad liberalization of the 1990s led to a boom in private institutions of higher education, although many of these establishments have difficulty living up to their name of "college" or "university".
According to the CIA World Factbook and the U.S. Department of State, 50% of Mongolia's population follow the Tibetan Buddhism, 40% are listed as having no religion, 6% are Shamanist and Christian, and 4% are Muslim.
Various forms of Tengriism and Shamanism have been widely practiced throughout the history of what is now modern day Mongolia, as such beliefs were common among nomadic people in Asian history. Such beliefs gradually gave way to Tibetan Buddhism, but Shamanism has left a mark on Mongolian religious culture, and continues to be practiced.
The official language of Mongolia is Khalkha Mongolian, which uses the Cyrillic alphabet, and is spoken by 90% of the population. A variety of different dialects are spoken across the country. In the west the Kazakh and Tuvan languages, among others, are also spoken.
Now, English is the most frequently spoken foreign language in Mongolia. Before, Russian was the most commonly spoken foreign language and English was a second, but that changed after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Korean has gained popularity as tens of thousands of Mongolians work in South Korea. Interest in Chinese, as the language of the other neighboring power, has been growing. Japanese is also popular among the younger people.
Many younger Mongolians are fluent in the Western European languages as they study or work in foreign countries including Germany, France and Italy.
Mongolian is one of the Mongolic languages. Mongolic is frequently included in the Altaic languages, a group of languages named after the Altay Mountains that also includes the Turkic and Tungusic languages.
Mongolia's total population as of 2014 is estimated by U.S. Census Bureau at 318,857,056 people.
It has a very small population relative to its two border neighbors, Russia and the People's Republic of China. Though the majority of Mongolian citizens are of Mongol descent there are small populations of Kazakh, Tuvan, and Tungus peoples. Mongolia's population growth rate is estimated at 1.37% (2014 est.). About 59% of the total population is under age 30, 27% of whom are under 14. This relatively young and growing population has placed strains on Mongolia's economy.
Mongolia has become more urbanized. About 40 percent of the population lives in Ulaanbaatar, and in 2002 a further 23% lived in Darkhan, Erdenet, the aimag centers and sum-level permanent settlements. Another share of the population lives in the sum centers. In 2002, about 30 percent of all households in Mongolia lived from breeding livestock. Most herders in Mongolia follow a pattern of nomadic or semi-nomadic pastoralism.
Ethnic Mongols account for about 85% of the population and consist of Khalkha and other groups, all distinguished primarily by dialects of the Mongol language. The Khalkha make up 90% of the ethnic Mongol population. The remaining 10% include Buryats, Durbet Mongols and others in the north and Dariganga Mongols in the east. Turkic peoples (Kazakhs, Tuvans, and Chantuu (Uzbek) constitute 7% of Mongolia's population, and the rest are Tungusic peoples, Chinese, and Russians. Most, but not all, Russians left the country following the withdrawal of economic aid and collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991.
Tea Beverages of Mongolia
Mongolian tea doesn't compare with fine indian tea, e.g. the british like to celebrate it. In fact, those are two entirely different beverages. The mongolian variation is prepared with salt, and may include solid food like rice, noodles, or Bansh /dumplings/. because of this, not the fine tea leaves are used, but rather the more course parts of the tea plant.
The distinction between tea and soup is blurred in the mongolian cuisine. The title of this post could therefore just as well (and even more accurately) be "Tea foods" instead of "Tea beverages". Nonetheless, all the recipes listed here have in common that they are prepared with the help of tea.
The Common Traditional Cusine of Mongolia
The common traditional Cuisine of Mongolia
Approximately fifty two million /as of year 2014 / head of livestock supply the staples of the diet; meat and dairy products feature prominently in this cuisine. Mongolian cooking is generally very simple and does not use many spices, flavorings or sauces. Common dishes include steamed meat–filled dumplings ( buuz ), mutton soup with noodles ( guriltai shul ) and fried meat pasties ( huushuur ). Mongolians drink copious quantities of milk tea ( suutei tsai ), which frequently contains salt and a generous spoonful of fresh or rancid butter.
Nomadic life in Mongolia may be a struggle on the steppes but families will still find time for games and leisure activities. In the evenings, children (sometimes adults) play with their shagai (ankle bones), which have four distinct sides representing horse🐎 , sheep 🐑, goat and camel 🐫 . There are numerous shagai games but the most common is “mori uraldalulakh” (horse race), which entails rolling four shagai (like dice) and then moving your ‘horse shagai’ a certain number of moves depending on the roll (roll four camels, move four spaces). The first person to reach the end of their ger wins the ‘race’. Other indoor games include ankle-bone shooting 👌(like darts but with shagai), shatar (chess), khözör (cards) and duu dulakh🎶 (singing songs).
Reindeer herders are natives of a nomadic civilization. They raise reindeers and eat deer meat and produce milk products. They move frequently in order to prepare their livestock’s pasture. There are only about 500 Reindeer herders in the world today. The live far away from civilization and the progress of the modern world, herding their reindeer in deep forests, where it’s 27 degrees Celsius in summer and -55 to 60 -60 degrees Celsius in winter.
Deer Stones: a Relic of Mongolia's Past
Deer stones are mysterious prehistoric stones found across Mongolia (and in southern parts of neighbouring Siberia as well). These standing stones bear ancient depictions of flying reindeer, often accompanied by a belted warrior. Nobody knows exactly what these depictions mean, or even who made them, but over 900 have been found and they’re thought to date to the Bronze Age (about 1000 BC).
Modern humans reached Mongolia approximately 40,000 years ago. In 1206 Genghis Khan founded the Mongol Empire which became the largest land empire in world history. Mongolia later came under Chinese rule and won its independence from China in 1921. The Mongolian People's Republic was then established with Soviet influence. Mongolia became a UN member state in 1961. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Mongolia saw its own relatively peaceful democratic revolution in the early 1990’s which led to a multi-party system, a new constitution of 1992, and a transition to a market economy. This transition resulted in an upheaval of structures that had been in place for 70 years and saw Mongolia's trade with Russia decline by 80% and had a strong impact on peoples’ lives.
Throughout history, livestock raising by nomadic herders has been the major economic activity. In the early 20th century industrialization began, spurred by the Soviet Union and largely based on wool processing and extraction of minerals, mainly coal, copper, gold and fluorspar.
Tsam is one of the Buddhist rituals and its origination and development are inevitably connected with Buddhist devotees and nations. The word 'Tsam' means a dance of the Buddha (deva) and elements of this dance show as if protectors and deities have physically descended on the Jambudtiva (Southern continent).
The tsam performance was an important gurim (remedy practice) of Buddhist secret tantra and only well prepared monks carried out gurim by certain requirements and in certain circumstances. For example, the tsam performance was carried out in order to subdue and purify external environment, eradicate diseases, suffering, wars, famine, and hardships and spread auspiciousness.